The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria (collectively known as the strawberries). It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit. The fruit (which is not a botanical berry, but anaggregate accessory fruit) is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, fruit juice, pies, ice creams,milkshakes, and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are also widely used in many products like lip gloss, candy, hand sanitizers, perfume, and many others.Devamını oku
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Shan mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called apeach or a nectarine.
The specific epithet persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes thecherry, apricot, almond and plum, in the rose family. The peach is classified with thealmond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell.
Orange, New South Wales
Orange /ˈɒrɪndʒ/ is a city in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 kilometres (158 mi) west of the state capital, Sydney [206 kilometres (128 mi) on a great circle], at an altitude of 862 metres (2,828 ft). Orange had an estimated urban population of 40,075 as of June 2015 making the city a significant regional centre. According to the 2011 census, the key employment sectors within the City of Orange local government area include health care & social assistance, retail and the education & training sector. A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas. With a peak elevation of 1,395 metres (4,577 ft) it gives commanding views of the district.Devamını oku
Radish Crop in Pakistan
The radish (Raphanus sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times. Radishes are grown and consumed throughout the world, being mostly eaten raw as a crunchy salad vegetable. They have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and the length of time they take to mature. They are sometimes grown as companion plants and suffer from few pests and diseases. They germinate quickly and grow rapidly, smaller varieties being ready for consumption within a month while larger daikon varieties taking several months. Some radishes are grown for their seeds: oil-seed radishes, for instance, may be grown for oil production. Others are used for sprouting and both roots and leaves are sometimes served cooked.
Cultivation of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
Brassica oleracea Var. Capitata f. alba.
The peculiar flavor in the head is due to the glucocide Sinigrin, which carries sulphur also. The open green leaves are more nutritious than cabbage head.
The word cabbage is derived from the French word 'coboche', meaning head. A cabbage head is made up of numerous thick, overlapping smooth leaves which cover smooth terminal bud. Sometimes small heads of 5 or 7.5 cm. In diameter are formed, which are known as 'cabbage sprouts' having no commercial importance. Normally it is biennial but it is grown in India as annual crop.
Season and Climate:
Plums Crop in Pakistan
Plum is the most important stone fruit in Pakistan. European plums are mostly cultivated. Plums are budded on plum, peach, almond and apricot rootstocks. In Pakistan, plum is used as rootstock in Murree, peach in NWFP, and almond in Baluchistan. Under favorable conditions, the fruit set is high, and affects fruit quality, thus requires thinning with growth regulators. Bacterial Spot is among main diseases, while aphids and fruit fly are the major insects.
Coconuts: A Sustainable Agricultural Industry?
The coconut, Cocos nucifera, is the sole species of the genus Cocos, a palm tree grown around the world for its fruit and fiber. The origin of the plant is still debated: some scientists believe the tree is from India or the Asia-Pacific region, while others contend they’re from South America. Either way, the tree has been cultivated and used for food and building materials by humans for centuries. And on the Island of the Holy Spirit, near Bahia de Jiquilisco in El Salvador, the coconut is a way of life. A little more than 10 percent of the island’s 1800 residents are employed in the coconut industry; approximately 9 million coconuts are harvested from the island’s trees each year. On the island is a cooperative that transforms the coconut into edible products, industrial products, or items of ornamental value.Devamını oku
The value of U.S. avocado production increased from $351.1 million in 2014, of which, California is responsible for $328 million. The total volume produced in the United States is 197,450 tons with California leading in production volume at 164,000 tons, 83 percent of the total U.S. volume. The total number of acres under production in the United States stabilized at 61,300.California accounts for 53,800 of those acres.
The dominant variety of avocado grown in California is the Hass variety, while Florida growers typically produce larger, less oily West Indian or Mexican varieties including Booth, Lula and Taylor. California avocados are marketed year round, while Florida’s market is from June through March (NASS).
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull", from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.Devamını oku
The Importance of History
History is important. In centuries past this statement would have seemed self-evident. Ancient cultures devoted much time and effort to teaching their children family history. It was thought that the past helps a child understand who he is. Modern society, however, has turned its back on the past. We live in a time of rapid change, a time of progress. We prefer to define ourselves in terms of where we are going, not where we come from. Our ancestors hold no importance for us. They lived in times so different from our own that they are incapable of shedding light on our experience. Man is so much smarter now than he was even ten years ago that anything from the past is outdated and irrelevant to us. Therefore the past, even the relatively recent past, is, in the minds of most of us, enshrouded by mists and only very vaguely perceived. Our ignorance of the past is not the result of a lack of information, but of indifference. We do not believe that history matters.Devamını oku
Basic principles of fermantation
Numerous fermented foods are consumed around the world. Each nation has its own types of fermented food, representing the staple diet and the raw ingredients available in that particular place. Although the products are well know to the individual, they may not be associated with fermentation. Indeed, it is likely that the methods of producing many of the worlds fermented foods are unknown and came about by chance. Some of the more obvious fermented fruit and vegetable products are the alcoholic beverages - beers and wines. However, several more fermented fruit and vegetable products arise from lactic acid fermentation and are extremely important in meeting the nutritional requirements of a large proportion of the worlds population. Table 2.1 contains examples of fermented fruit and vegetable products from around the world.
2.2 Organisms responsible for food fermentations
The most common groups of micro-organisms involved in food fermentations are:
Whether cultivated, wild, fresh or frozen, blueberries are full of essential nutrients and fiber, and are high in antioxidants (ARS, 2014). One way to add value to either fresh or processed blueberry products is to state these health benefits on the packaging (as long as the statements are scientifically based and align with regulatory guidelines) (University of Kentucky – Extension, 2011).
In 2014, average market prices for cultivated fresh blueberries were $1.93 per pound and processed blueberry prices were $0.78 per pound. The average market price for fresh and processed wild blueberries was $0.60 per pound (NASS, 2015).
Peaches (Prunus persica), like apricots, belong to the genus Prunus of Rosaceate (rose) family having decorative pink blossoms and a juicy, sweet drupe fruit. They are categorized as “stone fruit”, their seed being enclosed in a hard, stone-like endocarp. Peach originated in China, later introduced into Persia. Commercially grown peaches are generally distinguished as clingstone (pit adheres to flesh) or freestone (pit relatively free of the flesh).
China is the leading peach producing country with about 37% share of the total world production followed by the United States and Italy. More than half of this consumption was as fresh; this is likely to increase because of the popularity of fresh-cut fruits in recent years. In Pakistan the environment of N.W.F.P is quite favorable for peach production.