Easy Farming

Easy Farming

Easy Farming

Package of Practices (English Version) for the Cultivation of Black Pepper

Grow Panniyur - 1 which is an early bearing High Yielding Variety capable of giving 3 to 4 times the yield of other local varieties.

Pepper is a plant of humid tropical climate. An annual rainfall of about 250 cms is required for its proper growth and successful cultivation. It tolerates a minimum of 10°C and a maximum of 40°C. Although pepper can be grown from almost sea level to an altitude of 1,200 metres, lower elevation may be preferable.

Pepper can grown in clay loams, red loams and sandy loams. However, it thrives best on well drained virgin soil rich in humus content and other plant nutrients.

Generally propagation of Black pepper is done from cuttings. During the month of March- April, pepper cuttings of 2 to 3 nodes length are put in the soil filled bamboo basket or in perforated polythene bags fof initiation of rootings. These cuttings are ready for planting in about 3 months.

Rapid Multiplication of Panniyur - 1

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Eggplant production in China

China is the world's leading producer and consumer of eggplants. Originally a vegetable of India and then China, it was introduced to Europe by traders fromArabic countries. The leading producers, besides China, are Turkey, Japan, Egyptand Italy; the Mediterranean climate favours its production.[1] China has produced eggplants since the 5th century BC for various reasons, not just for food.[2] The eggplant is originally from India and reached coastal regions of mainland China first and then Taiwan; the long slender variety is the preferred one for cooking.[3] Dark eggplant skins were historically used by aristocratic women to make black dye, which they often used to "stain their teeth to a black lustre".[4] In Japan, this is calledohaguro.

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Carrots are a member of the Apiaceae (formerly called Unbelliferae) family, which also includes celery, anise, dill, and cilantro. They are a biennial crop, producing their taproot the first year, and, if left to grow, would flower, set seed and die the second year. Although most all the carrots marketed in the United States today are orange, other colors such as red, yellow, or purple can occasionally be found in various fresh, frozen, and juice products.

Carrots are primarily consumed fresh and are the 7th most consumed fresh vegetable in the U.S. Consumption of fresh carrots peaked in 1997 at 14.1 pounds per person and since then has dropped off and settled into a stable amount of approximately 8.5 pounds per person in 2014 (Vegetable and Melon Outlook, 2015). In contrast, consumption of frozen carrots averaged .7 pounds per person.

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Cultivation of pepper

Pepper is a tropical plant that grows in hot humid areas with a high rainfall. Locally it can only be grown in the Lowveld and along the northern coastal areas of KwaZulu-Natal.

Botanical characteristics
• The pepper plant is an evergreen perennial. It attaches itself to trees or trellises by means of aerial roots and is not a parasitic plant.
• The leaves are oblong, pointed at the tip and arranged alternately.
• Pepper plants have a shallow root system. There are usually a few major lateral roots that can penetrate the soil to a depth of 2 m.
• The white flowers are minute and mainly hermaphroditic (both sexes in one flower). The flowers converge in oblong spikes which later form clusters.
A fruiting branch of a pepper plant
• The pepper plant has 3 types of runners:
- The main stem (primary runner) forms the permanent stem from which other runners develop.

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King crop: World's greatest pepper farmer

Under the scorching southern Viet Nam sun, every exertion is a challenge likely to be rewarded with torrents of sweat.
Thankfully for pioneering farmer Tran Huu Thang, his entire pepper garden is automatically watered and fertilised at the flick of a switch.
This innovation is not just a labour-saving tool; it also conserves water and reduces the need for fertiliser by 50 per cent, bringing efficiency and consequent economic rewards.

Tran Huu Thang is not only the subject of admiring tales in Dong Nai Province's Xuan Loc District, he also serves as a teacher to locals who visit his farm in Xuan Tho Commune to seek his advice and experience.
Xuan Tho is considered Viet Nam's "capital of pepper", with almost 100 per cent of farming households working in the industry.

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Peaches have long been a Georgia trademark and are the state's official fruit.
Franciscan monks first introduced peaches to St. Simons and Cumberland islands along Georgia's coast in 1571. They became widely cultivated in Georgia during the colonial period of the 1700s.
After the Civil War, Georgia growers developed several hardy peach varieties. The new varieties boosted the commercial peach industry and made Georgia the "Peach State."
The first peaches grown in Georgia were the Elberta variety. Its creator, Samuel H. Rumph, is credited with being the father of the Georgia Peach Industry. In the late 1800s, the Elberta was highly successful on the northern markets because of its exceptional color, size and quality.

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Production Methods/onion

The Most Distinct Methods of Planting Onions Include
 Sowing seed directly in the field where the crop is to mature
 Sowing in a seedbed from which the plants are transplanted later to the field and
 Planting sets. A grower may buy these sets, or grow them from seed himself. The transplanting method is used more commonly for early production.
Autumn Crop
Onion is grown throughout Pakistan in varying volumes and with different harvesting seasons. However, supply of onion falls in short of requirements from December-January and prices soars to more than five times compared with normal season. The nursery for off-season / autumn crop of onion is raised in first week of July and the seedlings are transplanted in the field in the middle of August for harvesting of bulbs during December. It is difficult to manage nursery seedlings of autumn crop because of high temperature and monsoon rains.

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National programme for organic production

Organic products are grown under a system of agriculture without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides with an environmentally and socially responsible approach. This is a method of farming that works at grass root level preserving the reproductive and regenerative capacity of the soil, good plant nutrition, and sound soil management, produces nutritious food rich in vitality which has resistance to diseases.

India is bestowed with lot of potential to produce all varieties of organic products due to its various agro climatic regions. In several parts of the country, the inherited tradition of organic farming is an added advantage. This holds promise for the organic producers to tap the market which is growing steadily in the domestic market related to the export market.

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Cauliflower plant

Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea) is a cool season vegetable that is considered a delicacy. It is an annual plant that is grown in fields. The head is eaten while the stalk and surrounding thick, green leaves are used in vegetable broth or discarded. Cauliflower originated over 2,000 years ago in gardens of Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. It was consumed throughout western Europe around 16th century. China and India are the top producers of cauliflower and broccoli. About half of all cauliflower is raised in China and one fourth in India. In Europe and USA it is grown in Spain and California respectively.


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Floriculture and seeds

India is bestowed with several agro-climatic zones conducive for production of sensitive and delicate floriculture products. During the decade after liberalization floriculture industries took giant steps in the export arena. This era has seen a dynamic shift from sustenance production to commercial production. As per National Horticulture Database published by National Horticulture Board, during 2014-15 the area under floriculture production in India was 248.51 thousands hectares with a production of 1,685 thousand tonnes loose flowers and 472 thousand tonnes cut flowers. Floriculture is now commercially cultivated in several states with Tamil Nadu (17%), Karnataka (14%) West Bengal (10%), having gone ahead of other producing states like Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Haryana, Assam and Chhattisgarh.

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Organic Cultivation of Potato

Organic potato production generally fits into a planned rotation on an organic farm. It is possible for a specialist potato farmer to grow organic potatoes on an organic farm. All other organic standards will still need to be implemented and the farmer will have to register with a certification body. It may also be possible to have a single field in organic crop production, providing it operates a suitable planned rotation, and organic potatoes can be adequately isolated from any other potatoes grown on the farm. Organic potato production is of interest to many farmers as the crop:
• Is in demand from consumers
• Can be profitable
• Can be a starting point for a break crop from grass in the rotation
• Requires cultivation which help control weeds
Challenges of organic potatoes
Organic potato production has a number of challenges that must be tackled:
• Providing adequate nutrients
• Preventing potato blight
• Weed control

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Processed foods

Food processing sector is one of the largest sectors in India in terms of production, growth, consumption, and export. India's food processing sector covers fruit and vegetables; spices; meat and poultry; milk and milk products, alcoholic beverages, fisheries, plantation, grain processing and other consumer product groups like confectionery, chocolates cocoa product soya-based products, mineral water and high protein foods. Since liberalization in Aug'91 proposals for project proposed in various segments of the food and agro-processing industry. Besides this, Govt. has also approved proposals for joint ventures; foreign collaboration, industrial licenses and 100% export oriented units envisaging an investment. Out of this, foreign investment is over Rs.10,000 crores.

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Broccoli Production

Initial investment in a broccoli production operation is relatively low, and many field operations - such as land preparation, planting, and harvesting - can be custom hired. Equipment needs on a small-acreage farm are not very great, and most of the equipment can be used for other purposes.

"Broccoli" can mean different things to different people. When most people think of broccoli, they are thinking of sprouting broccoli (often referred to as "Italian" or "Calabrese" broccoli). "Heading" broccoli is not a broccoli at all—it is a late season or overwintering cauliflower. Another broccoli, broccoli rabe, does not produce a head and is used as a greens crop. This publication will cover the production and marketing of sprouting broccoli.

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Cucumber Production

Table of Contents
1. Production Requirements
2. Seeding and Spacing
3. Transplants
4. Pollination
5. Soil Applied Fertilizer Recommendations
6. Fertigation Recommentations
• Nitrogen and Potash Injection Schedules (per week)
7. Integrated Pest Management
• Major Pests of Cucurbit Crops
8. Related Links
Production Requirements
Cucumbers are warm season vegetables. They do not tolerate frost. Temperatures below 10° C (50° F) may impact crop growth and negatively affect fruit quality. They require well drained, compaction-free locations with ample fertility. Freshmarket cucumbers respond well to plasticulture and fertigation. High levels of nitrogen may result in excess leaf growth and poor fruit development. Most vine crops benefit from supplemental beehives to promote pollination.
Average Time from Flower Set to Harvest: Average Yields:
Cucumber (pickling) 4-5 days Pickling - machine harvest: 4 tons per acre
Pickling - hand harvest: 8-12 tons per acre

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